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Fueling Protocol

REVISED DRAFT OPERATING AND FUELING 
PROTOCOL


Prepared by:
Myren Consulting, Inc.
512 Williams Lake Road
Colville, WA 99114

BACKGROUND:
We are going to be burning 13 different appliances. Some of these appliances are EPA certified wood heaters and some are non-certified experimental wood heaters. Others are masonry heaters developed using different European design criteria. Some are large and there is at least one "mini". To try to come up with a "one size fits all" fueling and operating protocol is not really possible given the above. What follows is a best guess for what will work for most of the wood heaters and masonry heaters. But I anticipate that we will have to adjust once we get in a "hands-on" situation. The revised operating and fueling protocol could still be slightly modified.

We will have a small scale to weigh out all of the kindling, warm up and test fuel charges. (I have also provided criteria to load by eyeball like the consumer does.)

Wood Heaters (Wood Stoves)
START:
    Primary Air Control (PAC): Wide open or as per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Other Air Controls: Wide open or as per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Door: As per the Team's written instructions.
    Catalytic Bypass (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.
    Fan (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.
    Small kindling (~3/4"): ~1 lb./ft3
    Large kindling: (1-1.5" diameter) ~1.25/ft3 Lay each fire with a top down, log cabin type fuel pile with the paper in the center.

Ignite and let burn until all the fuel pieces are burning vigorously and the fire seems to have peaked.

1st WARM UP RICK

Once the kindling fire has peaked, add the 1st warm up charge (1st rick) - 5-8 lbs./ft3 of pieces that can fit through a round hole that has diameters between 1.25-3.5". Depending upon the species and fuel piece length, the individual pieces should weigh between 1.25-3.5 lbs.

    Primary Air Control (PAC): Wide open or as per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Other Air Controls: Wide open or as per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Door: As per the Team's written instructions.
    Catalytic Bypass (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.
    Fan (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.

Once the fuel is loaded, use a stopwatch to determine the amount of time it takes to burn the 1st rick.

Let the first rick burn until just charcoal is left, i.e., there are no yellow hydrocarbon flames in the firebox and/ or no visible emissions exiting the stack.

2nd WARM UP RICK

Once the 1st rick is charcoal, breakdown and level the coal bed and then add the 2nd rick - 5-8 lbs./ft3 of pieces that can fit within round holes with diameters between 1.5-4.0". Depending upon the species and fuel piece length, the individual pieces should weigh between 1.25-4.0 lbs.

    Primary Air Control (PAC): Wide open or as per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Other Air Controls: Wide open or as per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Door: As per the Team's written instructions.
    Catalytic Bypass (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.
    Fan (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.

    Once the fuel has been added and the door closed, restart the stopwatch. When the elapsed time on the stop watch = ((the time it took to burn the first rick - 5 minutes)/2), adjust the PAC to the setting to be used for the test and start "Preburn", where preburn is defined the same as in EPA M28. Let the stove burn at this setting for at least 60 minutes or until all visible yellow hydrocarbon flames and/or visible smoke are gone if they are not gone at 60 minutes.

    At "Preburn" start, the
    Primary Air Control (PAC): Will be adjusted to the run setting specified for the test burn in the Team's written operating instructions.
    Other Air Controls: Will be adjusted to the run setting specified for the test burn in the Team's written operating instructions.
    This setting (these settings) should produce a dry burn rate (DBR) of 1.15-1.35 kg/hr with cordwood using the operating and fueling procedures in this protocol.
    Door: Normally closed. If need be, the door could be opened to adjust the burning fuel at this point.
    Catalytic Bypass (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions. Normally the bypass is closed unless the door is opened to adjust the fuel.
    Fan (if applicable): "On" at the setting to be used during the test run, as per the Team's written operating instructions.     Note: If a Team does not specify a fan speed, the fan will be set on "High".
    Stop Watch: Reset and Restart a stopwatch immediately after all of the above have been done.

These all happen almost simultaneously.

During Preburn:

  1. The addition and removal of fuel shall be kept to a
    minimum.
  2. During the last 15 minutes of Preburn no further addition or removal of fuel is allowed.
  3. During the last 15 minutes of Preburn the door can only be opened 1 time for a maximum of 60 seconds, which takes place 1:30 before the start of the test. (see below.)

TEST START

    Once there are no yellow hydrocarbon flames in the firebox and/ or no visible emissions exiting the stack and the stove has been burning for a minimum of 58:30 minutes at the Preburn settings described above, open the door and break down/ level the coal bed. Time allowed: ≤ 60 seconds. Wait ≥ 30 seconds. (The total time for the adjusting the coal bed and waiting is 1:30, which with the 58:30 already elapsed totals 60 minutes, the minimum time for a "legal" Preburn.

    At "Test Start",
    Stopwatch: Reset and Restart a stopwatch. Time 00:00 equals the test start.
    Fan: Follow the Team's written operating instructions. Note: If a Team does not specify a fan speed, the fan will be set on "High" 30 minutes after a test has started.
    Catalytic Bypass (if applicable): As per the Team's written instructions.
    Primary Air Control (PAC): As per the Team's written operating instructions.
    Other Air Controls: As per the Team's operating instructions.
    Door: Open the door and load the test fuel, then as per the Team's written operating instructions.

    Load Time: 30-seconds/ ft3 of useable firebox volume. If the useable firebox volume is < 1.0 ft3, the load time is 30 seconds.

    Ignition Time: Load time + 5 minutes. Note: If it takes longer than the allowable load time to load the fuel pieces into the firebox, the extra time becomes part of the Ignition time.

    Startup Time: Maximum Startup time is Load time + 15 minutes. At the end of the maximum startup time, the air controls must be set at the setting(s) specified in the Team's written operating instructions. These must be the same setting(s) as were used during Preburn. This setting (these settings) should produce a dry burn rate (DBR) of 1.15-1.35 kg/hr with cordwood using the operating and fueling procedures in this protocol. A Team can specify a smaller Startup Time, e.g., adjust the air controls to the minimum setting at 12 minutes, if so desired.

    The door, cat bypass and air control(s) are all operated as per the manufacturer's written instructions during the Load, Ignition and Startup Times except that the Door must be closed and remain closed once the Startup Time begins.

    Once the Load time period has elapsed, additional fuel load adjustments are allowed during the Ignition time. Once the maximum Startup time period has elapsed, no further fuel load, cat bypass or manual air control adjustments are allowed. If a unit is equipped with "automatic" controls, they are allowed to operate as intended.

Fuel Loads:
Every attempt will be made to mimic what consumers do when loading their stove for an overnight burn, i.e., they "stuff" their stoves. Depending upon the stove and fuel species, this results in a (nominal) loading density of 10.0-15.0 lbs./ft3. If a Team does not specify a loading density, a loading density of 12 lbs./ft3 will be used. (Note: all loading densities are ±10%.) If the fuel pieces are "short", they will be loaded in a way that maximizes the fuel load size and meets the manufacturer's specified loading density, i.e., pieces will be loaded N-S in an E-W stove if they will fit.

Fuel Load Moisture:

A reasonable effort will be made to insure that the fuel piece and fuel load moisture contents are legal (19-25% DB). It that is not possible, then every effort will be made to insure that moisture content for all of the fuel loads for the test runs for all of the units will be approximately equal.

Testing:
Particulate matter (PM) and percent overall efficiency (%OE) testing will start at 30:00 after a test run has started and will last for 30 minutes per PM/%OE test. Only one PM/%OE test will be conducted per test run. The 30-minute PM/%OE test start criteria may have to be modified (reduced) for one entry because of it small size.

MASONRY HEATERS:

Here we intend to use the fueling and operating procedures used in ASTM E2817-11, Standard Test Method for Test Fueling Masonry Heaters, and the Team's written operating instructions.

Masonry heaters are normally fired once every 12 or 24 hours, so while the starts aren't hot, they aren't totally cold either because there is usually some residual heat in the unit. Because the designs of these units can vary dramatically, there isn't much that can be specified in advance. The fuel and kindling will be loaded into the units as per the Team's written operating instructions and ignited. If a Team does not provide specific instructions for a loading density for their appliance, a default of 12.0 lbs./ft3 ±10% will be used. The door and air controls will also be operated as per the Team's written operating instructions.

Testing:
Particulate matter (PM) and percent overall efficiency (%OE) will start at 30:00 after a test run has started and will last for 30 minutes per PM test. Only one PM/ %OE test will be conducted per test run.

 
Wood Stove Decathlon